Δευτέρα, 21 Οκτωβρίου 2019

Serum lipidome screening in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer

Abstract

The ability of early lung cancer diagnosis is an unmet need in clinical practice. Lung cancer metabolomic analyses conducted so far have demonstrated several abnormalities in cancer lipid profile providing a rationale for further study of blood lipidome of the patients. In the present research, we performed a targeted lipidome screening to select molecules that show promise for early lung cancer detection. The study was conducted on serum samples collected from newly diagnosed, stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and non-cancer controls. A high-throughput mass spectrometry-based platform with confirmed interlaboratory reproducibility was used. The analyzed profile consisted of acylcarnitines, sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines. Among the assayed lipid species, the significant differences between NSCLC and non-cancer subjects were observed in the group of phosphatidylcholines (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC), especially in the levels of lysoPC a C26:0; lysoPC a C26:1; PC aa C42:4; and PC aa C34:4. The metabolites mentioned above were used to create a multivariate classification model, which reliability was proved by permutation tests as well as external validation. Our study indicated choline-containing phospholipids as potential lung cancer markers. Further investigations of phospholipidome are crucial to better describe the shifts in metabolite composition occurring in lung cancer patients.

MicroRNA-423 may regulate diabetic vasculopathy

Abstract

To test the hypothesis that microRNAs may play a role in diabetic retinopathy, we measured the levels of different markers [microRNAs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nitric oxide (NO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAO)] in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and microvascular complications. Sixty-nine patients were recruited: 22 healthy subjects, ten T2DM patients without retinopathy, 22 with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 15 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Serum levels of NO, VEGF, TAO and 16 candidate microRNAs were measured. Additionally, the mRNA levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), induced NOS (iNOS), C reactive protein (CRP), VEGF, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), PON2, p22, and SOD2 were measured in human vascular endothelial cells cultured in the presence of pooled sera from the subject groups. Plasma miR-423 levels showed a significant ~ twofold decrease in patients with PDR compared to controls. P lasma NO levels were significantly higher in retinopathy, VEGF levels were significantly lower, and TAO was significantly decreased. eNOS mRNA levels were lower in the cells of T2DM patients without retinopathy, but higher in PDR. PON2, p22, and SOD2 mRNA levels were all significantly lower in PDR. CRP, TNFα, iNOS, and VEGF mRNA levels showed no significant association with disease status. Lowered miR-423 levels in diabetic patients showed a correlation with VEGF and an inverse correlation between NO and eNOS expression. Our findings suggest a cross talk between miR-423 and VEGF signaling, affecting eNOS function. miR-423 may be involved in the regulation of diabetic vascular retinal proliferation.

TNFA -308G>A and -238G>A polymorphisms and risk to systemic sclerosis: impact on TNF- α serum levels, TNFA mRNA expression, and autoantibodies

Abstract

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease with high mortality, characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis, which are processes associated with higher serum tumor necrosis factor-α (sTNF-α) levels. TNFA -308G>A and -238G>A polymorphisms have been associated with higher sTNF-α levels. In this study, we genotyped the TNFA -308G>A and -238G>A polymorphisms in 53 SSc patients and 115 unrelated control subjects (CS) from southern Mexico. The TNFA mRNA expression and sTNF-α levels were also quantified by qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. TNFA -308GA genotype was associated with disease susceptibility according to a codominant genetic model (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.05–9.75, p = 0.03), and with higher anti-fibrillarin antibodies (p = 0.01), and higher skin thickening (p = 0.006). TNFA -238GA was not associated with SSc risk. TNFA mRNA expression and sTNF-α levels were similar between SSc patients and CS and were not statistically associated with the TNFA polymorphisms; however, a correlation (rho = 0.362, p = 0.009) between sTNF-α levels with anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies was observed in the SSc patients. In conclusion, the -308G>A polymorphism is a genetic marker of SSc susceptibility in population from southern Mexico, and it is associated with skin thickening and anti-fibrillarin antibodies. In addition, sTNF-α levels correlate positively with the anti-RNA pol III antibodies levels.

Clinical and pathological features of immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients with nephrotic syndrome

Abstract

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. The classic manifestation of IgAN is episodic hematuria and proteinuria. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is not very common in IgAN, reported to occur in only 5–10% of IgAN patients. However, the clinical and pathological characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients with NS-IgAN at onset remain unknown. A retrospective study was conducted, enrolling 1165 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN from West China Hospital in 2008–2015. Patients with renal biopsy of minimal change disease with mesangial IgA deposits were excluded. The renal endpoint was defined as 50% decrease in eGFR or progressing into end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A total of 1165 patients were enrolled with average age of 34.58, and 171 (14.7%) patients were presented with NS. Comparing NS and non-NS groups, significance differences were shown in hypertension (HTN), 24-h urine protein, serum albumin, serum creatine, eGFR and uric acid. NS group had severe pathological changes such as endocapillary hypercellularity, tubular atrophy or interstitial fibrosis and crescent, but less segmental glomerulosclerosis or adhesion and global sclerosis. During the average follow-up of 44.27 months, 29.8% (51/171) NS patients and 15.8% (157/994) non-NS patients progressed to the renal endpoint. 5-year renal survival rates were 73.1% and 87.8% (P < 0.001) in NS and non-NS groups, respectively. This study demonstrated that IgAN patients with NS had higher serum creatine, lower eGFR, lower uric acid, more acute lesions and poor prognosis. NS was an independent risk factor for progression to the renal endpoint.

Radiation-induced lung injury: latest molecular developments, therapeutic approaches, and clinical guidance

Abstract

Cancer research has advanced throughout the years with respect to the personalization of the treatments and to targeting cancer-related molecular signatures on different organs. Still, the adverse events of the treatments such as radiotherapy are of high concern as they may increase the mortality rate due to their severity. With the improved efficiency of cancer treatments, patient survival has been increasing. Consequently, the number of patients with adverse effects from radiotherapy is also expected to increase in the forthcoming years. Therefore, approaches for personalized treatments include the elimination of adverse events and decreasing the toxicity in healthy tissues while increasing the efficiency of cancer cytotoxicity. In this context, this paper aims to discuss the recent advances in the field of thorax irradiation therapy and its related toxicities leading to radiation pneumonitis in cancer patients. Molecular mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced lung injury and approaches used to overcome this lung injury are discussed. The discourse covers approaches such as therapeutic administration of natural products, current and prospective radioprotective drugs, and applications of mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced lung injury.

Adenylate kinase 4 promotes bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion

Abstract

Bladder cancer is the second most common urological cancer worldwide with low early diagnosis and high mortality. Since the time of diagnosis directly affects survival rate, early detection and precise biomarkers of bladder cancer are very important. Adenylate kinase 4 (AK4) is a key enzyme involved in cellular metabolism and multiple cancer development; however, the potential role of AK4 in bladder tumorigenesis is still unclear. Immunohistochemistry assay was conducted to evaluate the expression level of AK4 in 107 human bladder cancer tissues. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were used to assess the prognosis of patients. Colony formation and MTT assays [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] were performed to measure the proliferation capacity of tumor cells. Cell scratch assays and transwell assays were performed to measure the invasion capacity of tumor cells. The expression level of involved genes was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays. The animal model was used to examine the effects of indicated protein on tumorigenesis and invasion in vivo. Herein, our study demonstrated that increased AK4 expression in patients with bladder cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. We further found that inhibition of AK4 in bladder cancer cell line T24 and 5637 can obviously inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Transwell assay results showed that down-regulated AK4 was related to the decreased metastasis of T24 and 5637 cells. In addition, AK4-shRNA transfected obviously inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in mice compared with the scramble group. Taken together, the results provide strong evidence of the involvement of AK4 in the progression of bladder cancer and suggest that it could have high potential as a therapeutic target of disease.

Impact of estrogen receptor α on the tamoxifen response and prognosis in luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer

Abstract

The luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer groups have distinct biological features that lead to differences in the treatment response and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the value of the distribution pattern of ERα expression, ESR1 SNPs as well as ESR1 mRNA expression in predicting tamoxifen response and survival in patients with luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer. A total of 135 patients with both subtypes were stratified into two groups depending on the tamoxifen response: tamoxifen-resistant patients (TR) and tamoxifen-sensitive patients (TS). ESR1 mRNA expression was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Three polymorphisms of ESR1 (rs2077647, rs2228480 and rs1801132) were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. The distribution pattern of ERα expression was analyzed immunohistochemically using the visual assessment of staining. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). There was a significant decrease in ESR1 mRNA expression level in the TR group when compared to the TS group among patients with luminal-B-like subtype (P = 0.038). ESR1 2014AA mutant genotype of rs2228480 was more prevalent in the TR patients with luminal-B-like subtype than the TS group (P = 0.045). In the luminal-A-like group, tamoxifen-resistant tumors were more frequently heterogeneous for ERα expression than tamoxifen-sensitive tumors (P = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed a strong association of lymph node status and the distribution pattern of ERα expression with tamoxifen responsiveness in this cohort of patients. In addition, a luminal-A-like patients with the heterogeneous ERα expression had a significantly shorter PFS time than those with the homogeneous ERα (P = 0.013). These results indicate that the heterogeneous expression of ERα is an accurate predictor of tamoxifen response and survival in luminal-A-like breast cancer patients. ESR1 rs2228480 may act as a marker with a high prognostic potential in luminal-B-like tumors.

MAT2B mediates invasion and metastasis by regulating EGFR signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

Abstract

The poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is mainly due to cancer metastasis. Methionine adenosyltransferase 2β (MAT2B) encodes a regulatory subunit (β) for methionine adenosyltransferase. Previous studies reveal that MAT2B provides a growth advantage for HCC, but its role in metastasis is unknown. This study showed that both in the xenograft zebra fish model and in the lung metastasis model in nude mice, the stable inhibition of MAT2B could suppress the metastasis of HCC cancer cells. Silencing of MAT2B in HCC cell lines could remarkably inhibit migration and invasion. By analysis of human phospho-kinase array membranes, we found several differentially expressed proteins, including phosphor-AKT, phospho-EGFR, phospho-Src family, phospho-FAK, phospho-STAT3 and phospho-ERK. We further confirmed the change of these EGFR pathway-related proteins was in accordance with MAT2B expression pattern through immunoblotting test. Finally, we found that MAT2B was overexpressed in HCC caner tissues and correlated with poor prognosis for HCC patients in clinical manifestation. Our study demonstrated that silencing of MAT2B could suppress liver cancer cell migration and invasion through the inhibition of EGFR signaling, which suggested that MAT2B might serve as a new prognostic marker and therapeutic target for HCC.

Crescent lesions are not a predictive factor in adult-onset Henoch–Schönlein purpura nephritis

Abstract

Henoch–Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) is a common secondary glomerulonephritis, and its prognosis mainly depends on the severity of renal impairment. To date, the significance of crescent lesions in adult-onset HSPN is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to assess whether crescents could predict the renal outcomes in adult HSPN patients. A total of 188 adult patients with HSPN proven by renal biopsy were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients were divided into three groups based on the proportion of crescents: non-crescent group (C0, n = 110), crescent ≤ 25% group (C1, n = 50) and crescent > 25% group (C2, n = 28). The composited endpoint was defined as eGFR decreased > 50% of baseline level, reached end-stage renal disease and/or death. Among three groups, clinical pathological features, treatment regimens and renal outcomes were compared. During a mean follow-up of 26 months, 78 (42.5%) patients had crescent lesions. A total of ten (9.1%) patients in C0 group and five (17.9%) patients in C2 group reached the combined endpoint, but no patients in C1 group reached endpoint. Renal survival analysis indicated patients in C1 group tended to have the best renal outcome, while patients in C2 group had the poorest renal survival. Moreover, Cox regression analysis revealed crescents were not a predictor of poor developing to renal outcome after adjusting potential confounders [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07–1.18, P = 0.083]. Crescent formation is not necessarily a predictive factor of poor renal survival in adult HSPN patients who had small proportions of crescents (crescent ≤ 25%).

MicroRNA-15a tissue expression is a prognostic marker for survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Abstract

None of the currently investigated molecular markers demonstrated sufficient accuracy in prognostication of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) oncologic outcomes; thus, none of them has been recommended for the application in the routine clinical practice. The role of miR-15a as a potential prognostic marker for RCC is still not unveiled. The aim of our study was to assess the expression of miR-15a in tumor tissues of the patients with RCC and to evaluate the possibility of its usage as a prognostic molecular biomarker of this disease. The retrospective included 64 adult patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) in whom radical or partial nephrectomy was conducted. After deparaffinization of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ccRCC specimens, the tissue expression of miR-15a was measured using the reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the real time. For the reference, the expression of miR-15a was estimated in 15 FFPE tissue specimens of the normal renal parenchyma. Survival analysis involved all cases of non-metastatic RCCs (n = 57). Five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) was estimated by means of the Kaplan–Meier method and was calculated from the date of surgery to the date of death. Patients with the RCC were characterized by significantly upregulated tumor tissue mean levels of miR-15a compared to the healthy controls: 0.10 ± 2.62 relative units (RU) versus 4.84E − 03 ± 3.11E − 03 RU (p < 0.001). Overexpression of miR-15a was strongly associated with poor histologic prognostic features of ccRCC. Poorly differentiated tumors tend to have more pronounced upregulation of miR-15a compared to highly differentiated lesions: Mean expression values were 4.57 ± 3.19 RU for Fuhrman grade 4 versus 0.02 ± 0.01 RU for Fuhrman grade 1 (p < 0.001). The metastatic involvement of the regional lymphatic nodules (N +) was associated with significantly upregulated miRNA-15a in comparison with N − cases: Mean expression values were 4.92 ± 2.80 RU versus 1.10 ± 2.29 RU, respectively (p < 0.001). In patients with miR-15a expression in RCC tissues ≤ 0.10 RU, mean 5-year CSS was significantly longer compared to patients with expression levels above this threshold: 92.31% (mean duration of survival—59.88 ± 0.12 months) versus 54.8% (mean duration of survival—49.74 ± 2.16 months), respectively (p < 0.001). The tissue expression of miR-15a could be used as a potential prognostic molecular biomarker for conventional RCC.

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