Δευτέρα, 21 Οκτωβρίου 2019

Cardiometabolic risk in Algeria: past and present

Abstract

Algeria, like all emerging countries, has been going through a health transition over the past 30 years or so, characterized by a drop in mortality rates, an increase in life expectancy and a change in the causes of death in favor of chronic non-communicable diseases. In the past, the country mainly faced infectious diseases such as typhoid, cholera and malaria. The prevalence of the latter has been significantly reduced thanks to the many social health and vaccination programs undertaken by the health authorities. As a result of this epidemiological transition, we are witnessing a growing increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, mainly represented by cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. According to the results of the latest national survey on the measurement of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (the Who StepWise approach), the prevalence of diabetes is close to 14.4% while the rate of obesity and overweight exceeds 50% of the population. High blood pressure has reached a prevalence rate of 23.6%. These diseases represent a real threat to our country's health, social and economic situation; they will lead to greater demands on health facilities and require more resources for intervention.

The HEART score as a prognostic tool for revascularization

Abstract

The History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk Factors, Troponin (HEART) score is a useful tool in the Emergency Department setting to identify those patients safe for outpatient evaluation of chest pain. Its utility for predicting cardiac interventions is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the HEART score to predict the need for cardiac stent or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We conducted a retrospective chart review of 625 consecutive subjects with chest pain presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) with a HEART pathway protocol in place. We also reviewed each subject’s record for evidence of major adverse cardiac events within 6 weeks following their ED visit. We double-abstracted 10% of the charts for quality assurance. We included subjects if they were ≥ 18 at the time of presentation and had a chief complaint of chest pain. We excluded subjects if they did not have an electrocardiogram or troponin, or if their chart lacked sufficient information to calculate the history portion of their HEART score. Of 625 charts, 449 subjects met criteria for study inclusion. The area under the receiver operator curve reported as c-statistics was 0.877 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.806–0.949] for the HEART score’s ability to predict cardiac stent and 0.921 (95% CI 0.858–0.984) for CABG. There is a strong association between increasing HEART scores and the need for revascularization which may provide emergency physicians justification for expedited cardiology consultation and admission for these patients. These findings require further prospective validation.

Renal involvement in adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease): can we always recognize it?

Abstract

Addison disease is due to the destruction or dysfunction of the entire adrenal cortex. Nowadays, the causes of adrenal insufficiency are autoimmune disease for 70–90% and tuberculosis for 7–20%. Many typical signs and symptoms, such as hyponatremia, hyperkalaemia, or renal insufficiency can represent the reasons for a nephrology consultation, especially in conditions of urgency, and they can easily be confused with other causes. Moreover, the fact that in a short time range we have diagnosed the three cases described as a guide in this review, has aroused our attention as nephrologists on a disease in which we have probably already encountered but without recognizing it. The blood tests showed in all three patients severe electrolyte disorders and acute renal failure which will be discussed in their physiopathogenetic mechanisms. In a peculiar way, these alterations were not controlled with repolarizing solutions, fluid replacement and increased volemia, but only after steroid administration. In conclusion, in this review all the known pathogenic mechanisms causing disorders of nephrological interest in adrenal insufficiency are discussed.

Why include the humanities in medical studies: comment

Early oral vs parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes and hospital costs from a tertiary care referral center

Abstract

Nutritional support is a crucial issue in Acute Pancreatitis (AP) management. Recommendations on nutrition in AP are still not completely translated in the clinical practice. We aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of parenteral nutrition (PN) vs oral/enteral nutrition (EN) on several clinical and economic outcomes in AP. This is a retrospective monocentric study conducted in a tertiary care center for pancreatic diseases. The primary outcomes were length of hospital stay (LOS) and associated costs. The secondary outcomes were the use and cost of antibiotics and fluid therapy, and the complication’s rates. One hundred seventy-one patients were included from January 2015 to January 2018. Patients were 69 (40.4%) in PN group and 102 (59.6%) in EN group. There was a significant reduction in LOS in EN vs PN group in both mild AP (p < 0.0001), and moderate–severe AP (p < 0.005). There was a significant reduction in the total hospitalization costs in EN group vs PN group in both mild AP (p < 0.0001), and moderate–severe AP (p < 0.005). There was a significant reduction in the total costs of antibiotics and pain therapy in EN vs PN group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.05, respectively). Finally, a significant reduction in the infected peri-pancreatic fluid collections rate (p = 0.04) was observed in EN vs PN group. The use of EN in AP is associated with substantial clinical and economic benefits. Thus, the application of the standard of care in nutrition and following AP guidelines is the best way to cure patients and improve healthcare system costs.

Ventilation rate and successful recovery from cardiac arrest: illusory correlation bias or real effect?

Serum albumin and risk of cardiovascular events in primary and secondary prevention: a systematic review of observational studies and Bayesian meta-regression analysis

Abstract

The predictive role of serum albumin (SA) has been evaluated in primary prevention studies. We want to assess the association of SA with the subsequent risk of cardiovascular events (CVE) in primary and secondary prevention studies. We performed a systematic review and Bayesian meta-regression analysis. Studies were identified by PubMed and EMBASE database using a combination of the following terms and MeSH terms: “serum albumin”, “myocardial infarction, “cardiovascular events”, “percutaneous coronary intervention” and “coronary restenosis”. No time restriction of the research was applied. Two experienced physicians reviewed data on outcome measures and assessed the quality rating. The main outcomes were CVE including myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary restenosis. 15 studies of SA and CVE were identified involving 65,077 subjects with a mean age of 57.89 ± 6.05 years and a mean follow-up of 9.4 (±5.56) years. Subjects under SA cut-off of 3.8 g/dL had a combined hazard ratio (HR) for CVE of 2.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93–2.45]. An increased risk for CVE was also evident using SA as a continuous variable (HR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.5–2.39). Females and males had a similar risk for CVE (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.92–3.16, and HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.27–1.69, respectively). We found a similar risk of CVE between primary and secondary prevention studies (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.5–2.17, and HR 2.47, 95% CI 2.24–2.75, respectively). Low SA levels are associated with an increased risk of CVE, not only in subjects free from CVE, but also in patients who already experienced a CVE.

Why include humanities in medical studies: comment

Chronic large pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle

Internists feel the rhythm

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